Citronen Fjord - Zinc – Lead
The Citronen project in Northeast Greenland is one of the world’s largest undeveloped zinc-lead resources. The SEDEX deposit lies within the deep water (trough) sequence of the Paleozoic Franklinian Basin, and is bounded by two major early Palaeozoic or older faults that controlled the sulphide mineralization. Mineralization occurs at three main stratigraphic levels and is generally planar, tabular and undeformed. Pyrite, sphalerite and galena are the main ore-bearing minerals.
The Citronen Fjord deposit was discovered by Platinova A/S in 1993. Ironbark Zinc Ltd. have been exploring in the area since 2007, and outlined a measured resource of 25 Mt, an indicated resource of 26.5 Mt and an inferred resource of 19.3 Mt at 5.7% Zn+Pb at a 3.5% Zn cut-off. The deposit has an economic mineralization along a strike length of 11 km, with the current resource occurring over 6.5 km strike length. The deposit is open in almost all directions. More information on the Citronen base metal project can be found on https://ironbark.gl/.
Pituffik (Dundas) – Ilmenite (Titanium sand)
Dundas Titanium A/S
The Pituffik (Dundas) ilmenite sand project in Northwest Greenland lies within the Proterozoic Thule Basin that consists of several kilometer thick successions of sedimentary and basaltic strata of the Thule Supergroup. The Dundas Group within the Thule Supergroup is 2-3 km thick, and is intruded by the Neoproterozoic Steensby Land Sill Complex, which comprises basaltic sills and dykes of high titanium content up to 100 m in thickness. Erosion of these sills and dykes sourced the massive black sand province found around Pituffik, Steensby Land. The province hosts high-grade mineral sands in raised, active and drowned beaches.
Bluejay Mining PLC obtained an exploration license in the area in 2015, which was then transferred to Dundas Titanium A/S in 2017. The Company have outlined an inferred resource of 23.6 Mt at 8.8% ilmenite, including a high-grade zone of 7.9 Mt at 14.2% ilmenite (SRK, 2017). The project progresses rapidly towards an exploitation permit with submitted Terms of Reference for the EIA and SIA. More information on the Dundas ilmenite project can be found on https://www.titanium.gl/.
Kvanefjeld/Kuannersuit - REE and Uranium
Greenland Minerals and Energy (Trading) A/S
The Kvanefjeld/Kuannersuit deposit in South Greenland is one of the world’s largest undeveloped resources of both rare earth elements and uranium. It forms the northern half of the Mesoproterozoic Ilimaussaq alkaline to peralkaline layered intrusive complex.
The deposit was discovered in the 1960s, and was acquired under an exploration license by Greenland Minerals and Energy (GME) in 2007. The Kvanefjeld deposit, together with the Sørensen and Zone 3 resources, are hosted in the uppermost sections of the Ilimaussaq complex within the lujavrite, which is strongly enriched in rare earth elements, uranium and zinc. The thickness of the mineralized sections can exceed 250 m in dome-like structural culminations, persistent over several square kilometres.
The deposit represents a total resource of 1,010 Mt, which includes 11.14 Mt TREO at 1.4%, and by-products of 593 Mlbs U3O8 at 352 ppm, and 3.47 Mt Zn at 0.26%. GME is progressing the project towards an exploitation permit, and are currently preparing the EIA and SIA for public consultation. More information on the Kvanefjeld project can be found on http://www.ggg.gl/.
Kringlerne/Killavaat Alannguat - REE, Niobium, Zirconium and Tantalum
TANBREEZ Mining Greenland A/S
The Kringlerne/Killavaat Alannguat deposit in South Greenland is one of the world’s largest undeveloped resources of heavy rare earth elements. It forms the southern half of the Mesoproterozoic Ilimaussaq alkaline to peralkaline layered intrusive complex. Mineralization is hosted within the 300-500 m thick floor sequence of the complex, consisting of agpaitic nepheline syenite (kakortokite) enriched in REE, Nb, Ta and zirconium. Kakortokite is composed of alternating layers enriched in arfvedsonite, eudalyte and feldspar-nepheline. The main ore-bearing mineral is eudialyte. Kringlerne has an inferred resource estimate of 4,700 Mt at 1.8% ZrO2, 0.2% Nb2O5, 0.6% TREO, 0.02% Ta2O5 and 0.03% HfO2.
The deposit was discovered in the late 19th century, and TANBREEZ have been exploring in the area since 2001. The company is progressing the project towards an exploitation permit, and preparing application materials to submit the Resource Authorities. More information on the Kringlerne project can be found on http://tanbreez.com/.
Nalunaq – Gold
Nalunaq lies within the Psammite Zone of the Palaeoproterozoic Ketilidian Orogen in South Greenland. This Psammite Zone hosts the Nanortalik Gold Province with several gold occurrences and mineralizations across the region.
The Nalunaq orogenic gold mineralization is hosted in amphibolite facies metapelites and metabasic rocks. Gold is associated with quartz-veins in major shear zones that formed during regional thrusting. Veins often show pinch and swell structures, and generally vary in width from 0.05 m to 2 m.
The Main Vein with significant lateral extent (1 km along strike and 2 km along dip) represents the main ore-bearing structure with high-grade and high nugget effect. This structure was mined between 2004 and 2013. Since mine closure, extensive exploration efforts have been put forward to delineate further resources with the hope to reopen the mine in the next few years. Nalunaq A/S, wholly owned by Alopex Gold Inc., have been exploring in the area since 2015. They have outlined an inferred resource of 446,900t, 263,070 oz contained gold at 18.7 g/t at a 5.5 g/t cut-off. More information on the Nalunaq project can be found on https://www.alopexgold.com/.
Maniitsoq Norite Belt - Nickel, Copper, Cobalt and PGM
North American Nickel Inc.
The Maniitsoq nickel-copper-cobalt-PGM project in southern West Greenland is hosted by recrystallized noritic intrusions within highly deformed and metamorphosed Mesoarchean gneisses. The noritic intrusions are concentrated in a 15 km wide, 75 km long belt known as the Maniitsoq Norite Belt. The steeply-dipping intrusions range in size from small dykes and plugs to elongate bodies covering up to 8 km2, and contain xenoliths of brecciated orthogneiss and fluidised microbreccia. The disseminated to near massive sulphide mineralization consists of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and pyrite.
North American Nickel Inc. have been exploring in the area since 2011, and have carried out extensive exploration including diamond-drilling, borehole surveying, airborne geophysics, ground gravity surveying, geological and structural mapping, and detailed mineralogical studies. The Company is currently focusing on delineating a resource estimate and to outline critical infrastructure for future resource development. More information on the project can be found on https://www.northamericannickel.com/.
Isukasia - Iron
General Nice Development Ltd.
Isukasia in southern West Greenland hosts probably the banded-iron formation (BIF) on Earth (3.7 Ga) within the Isua Greenstone Belt. The belt consists of basaltic rocks intercalated with metasediments (cherts, BIF, schists) and ultramafic rocks, and shows strain and age variations across several domains. The BIF dominantly comprises of alternating quartz and magnetite layers, with subordinate grunerite and siderite bands. Two thirds of the ore body is concealed under the inland ice cap. The deposit has an indicated resource of 380 Mt, an inferred resource of 727 Mt at 32% Fe at 20% Fe cut-off.
Recent exploration has been carried out since 2004, and London Mining Greenland A/S was granted an exploitation permit in 2013. The company is backed by a Chinese company, General Nice Development Ltd. In order for the project to move forward, the licensee shall submit an exploitation and closure plan, and shall negotiate an IBA with the authorities.